Publications | Books | Mindo | Reptiles | Dactyloidae | Anolis proboscisPeters & Orcés 1956
Pinocchio Anole  Anolis pinocho

Recognition. ♂♂ 134–171 mm ♀♀ 149–178 mm. Males of Anolis proboscis are the only Mindoan lizards with an elongated rostral appendage15. The females are plain green and hornless3,5, just like some individuals of Anolis gemmosus6 and Anolis fraseri7. In these cases, the presence of a spiny dorsal crest is diagnostic for Anolis proboscis4.

Natural history. Rare3,8,9. This cryptic7, territorial twig-anole forages actively during the day at ambient temperatures around 22oC10. It is slow-moving10 and spends most of its time 450–800 cm above the ground3 on dense10 vegetation in evergreen montane forests11, usually near open areas like roadsides and pastures10,12. However, it has also been found active on the ground8 or perched on low vegetation in deep forest7. Males have moveable horns10, and modest dewlaps which they display only incidentally10. Anolis proboscis sleeps on horizontal twigs and leaves. Juveniles seem to prefer lower perches3,12. This species feeds on a variety of arboreal arthropods3,10 and lays two eggs per clutch7.

Distribution. 1209–1735 m. Endemic to the Pacific slopes of the Andes in Ecuador4. Anolis proboscis is known only from 12 localities. Nine of which fall within the parish of Mindo, including Séptimo Paraíso, Mindo Lago, Mindo Lindo, Reserva Río Bravo and San Tadeo.

Conservation status. Endangered13. Anolis proboscis is one of Ecuador's most imperiled reptile species3. It was thought to be extinct for nearly fifty years and still after its "rediscovery" in 20058, it remains hard to locate3,8,9. This may be a consequence of low population densities, preference for higher forest strata, or a bias in searching efforts3. In all, Anolis proboscis inhabits degraded areas10 in fewer than 12 localities, which collectively account for less than 500 km2.

Etymology. The specific epithet comes from the Greek word proboskis14, and is a reference to the elongated rostral appendage of the species4.

Notes. Anolis proboscis belongs to the Phenacosaurus group of anoles10,15. This is one of the five major lineages16 of the proposed genus Dactyloa17.

Authors. Alejandro Arteaga.

Reviewers and contributors. Jonathan Losos, Rosario Castañeda, James Christensen, Nick Pezzote and Alex Pyron.

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1Uetz P and Hallermann J (2010) The JCVI/TIGR Reptile Database. Available here.

2Torres-Carvajal O, Salazar-Valenzuela D and Merino-Viteri A (2013) ReptiliaWebEcuador. Versión 2013.1. Available here.

3Yánez-Muñoz MH, Urgilés MA, Altamirano M and Cáceres SR (2010) Redescripción de Anolis proboscis Peters & Orcés (Reptilia: Polychrotidae), con el descubrimiento de las hembras de la especie y comentarios sobre su distribución y taxonomía. Avances 2:7–15.

4Peters JA and Orcés G (1956) A third leaf-nosed species of the lizard genus Anolis from South America. Breviora 62:1–8.

5Poe S, Ayala F, Latella IM, Kennedy TL, Christensen JA, Gray LN, Blea NJ, Armijo BM and Schaad EW (2012) Morphology, phylogeny and behavior of Anolis proboscis. Breviora 530:1–11.

6Boulenger GA (1885) Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum, Volume II (Taylor and Francis, London) 497 pp.

7Field notes of Alejandro Arteaga, Lucas Bustamante, Diana Troya and Paolo Escobar.

8Almendáriz A and Vogt C (2007) Anolis proboscis (Sauria: Polychrotidae), una lagartija rara pero no extinta. Revista Politécnica, Biología 7:157–159.

9Torres-Carvajal O (2012) Los anolis cornudos de Mindo: un encuentro con lo bizarro. Nuestra Ciencia 14:21–23.

10Losos JB, Woolley ML, Mahler DL, Torres-Carvajal O, Crandell KE, Schaad EW, Narváez AE, Ayala-Varela F and Herrel A (2012) Notes on the natural history of the little-known Ecuadorian horned anole, Anolis proboscis. Breviora 531:1–17.

11Sierra R (1999) Propuesta Preliminar de un Sistema de Clasificación de Vegetación para el Ecuador Continental (EcoCiencia, Quito) 194 pp.

12James Christensen, pers. comm.

13Carrillo E, Aldás A, Altamirano M, Ayala F, Cisneros D, Endara A, Márquez C, Morales M, Nogales F, Salvador P, Torres ML, Valencia J, Villamarín F, Yánez M and Zárate P (2005) Lista Roja de los Reptiles del Ecuador (Fundación Novum Millenium, Quito) 46 pp.

14Brown RW (1956) Composition of Scientific Words (Smithsonian Books, Washington) 882 pp.

15Williams E (1979) South American Anoles: The species groups. Breviora 449:1–19.

16Castañeda MdR and de Queiroz K (2011) Phylogenetic relationships of the Dactyloa clade of Anolis lizards based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61:784–800.

17Nicholson KE, Crother BI, Guyer C and Savage JM (2012) It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477:1–108.